Breeding & keeping info


by Lilja Krivosheeva

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Sergei Prokop'ev (Kharkiv, Ukraine) is a recognized  chameleons breeder and and BION’s important business partner since 2006.

The list of chameleons species breed by S.Prokopiev: Furcifer pardalis, Chamaeleo calyptratus, Chamaeleo jacksonii, Chamaeleo montium, Chamaeleo quadricornis, Chamaeleo honeli, Chamaeleo melleri, Chamaeleo fischeri, Chamaeleo deremensis, Calumma parsonii.

He currently works with Furcifer lateralis, Furcifer campani and other new species.

From the beginning found stock included 3 males and 4 females.

Starting 2000 S.Prokopiev is making  C.parsonii project together with BION (as well as few other projects) with Sergei Prokopiev as Project Coordinator.

In 2012 and 2014 Sergei spent 60 days in Madagascar to understand the biology of different Malagasian  chameleons species in nature .

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Below you can see some interesting (and possibly first published info) on keeping & breeding of Calumma parsonii  in captivity obtained both in S.Prokopiev chameleon’s breeding center (Kharkov) & BION Terrarium Center (Kiev), Ukraine.


 Females make one clutch per season. The females doesn’t lay eggs every year.

The clutch consists of 20-60 eggs.

The number of the eggs depends of female’s size and age.

Pregnancy lasts about 6 months.

Incubation period takes 15-24 months.

Adult specimens are kept separately in vertical terrariums 200x100x150cm and pairs are placed together in mating period only.

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The details of keeping

Decoration: Branches, artificial plants.

Equipment: system of drip irrigation.

Lighting12 hours in summer, 8 hours in winter (dormant period from October till March) provided by Zoo Med lamps UV.10 (05-48 E). 

Heating: Spot lamp 60 watt

UV:  12 hours in summer, 8 hours in winter (dormant period from October till March) provided by Zoo Med lamps UV.10 (05-48 E).

Temperature: day - 23-25°C, night - 18-20°C.  

Humidity:   80-90% is achieved by intensive spraying the cage 2 times per day.       

Water:  System of drip irrigation (pouring of water in to irrigation system 2 times per day. Dripping of water during 30 minutes)

Diet:  Crickets, Turkestan roaches, locusts (without the hind legs).  For adults food is provided every other day by  3-5 insects per head, for babies - every day by  5-7 insects per head.

Mineral supplements:  each feeding. (Reptivit & Reptical with D3)

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Due to initial lack of information concerning the incubation of  C.parsonii eggs, we developed the original incubation scheme.

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At the same time we considered the maximum period of the incubation, known from the literature.

Thus, the entire incubation time was divided into several periods, based on the estimated natural temperature regimes: 


Duration of the period

The required temperature, °С


First 3 months

23(+/- 1)°C


The next 2.5 months (first  diapause)



The next 10 months



The next 2 months (second   diapause)



Further, till the hatchling


Incubation at "high" temperature is runs in incubators. The temperature there is about 23-25°C.

Incubation at "low" temperatures takes place in a specially equipped dormant room with air conditioning. The temperature there is about 18°C.

Eggs were placed in boxes with vermiculite from the beginning.

Eggs are inspected 3 times per week.

Humidificationis performedas needed. Humidity of vermiculite is maintained within 70-80% (a drop of water should appear on the surface of substrate after pressing it by fingers).

Eggs infected by bacteria or fungal diseases are treated regularly with a solution of hydrogen peroxide 2%.

"Irrigation" should  to be done to simulate  rainy season starting from the 13th  month of incubation during  2 months. Eggs are sprayed times per week by distilled water with temperature 24-25°C.

As mentioned above, firstly clutches incubated on vermiculite, but after some time mildew appeared on many eggs. Therefore it was decided to use wet wipes as a substrate.


Duration ofthe incubation ranged from 13.5to 21 months, hatching could continue for 2 months and even more in the same clutch!


Observations show that if the baby comes out strong, then its further keeping is not a problem.


Keeping of offsprings:

The size of new borns are about 8-8.5cm, including tail.  

Healthy Parson’s kids grow well adding by 1cm to their size each month.

Babies before 4 months of age must receive additional feeding withthe main food. Main food includes crickets and Turkestan roaches. Additional food is a fruit fly (Drosophila). It’s bred directly into theterrarium with chameleons (at least 1-2 glasses of nutrient mixture for Drosophila per one chameleon).

Veterinary issues:

Rickets (deformation and softening of the bones) may develop in juveniles and adults in case of wrong care. 

In this case the exposure of UV should be increased (“hard” UV over than 280nm during 2 minutes every other day until improvement)

Also dose of calcium should be increased (liquid calcium gluconate can be offered with drinking by 2-3 drops from a syringe ml every other day until the condition improves).


Useful links: - the weather of Madagascar







Breeding of Phrynosoma asio at BION Terrarium Center

by Dmitri Tkachev & Ivan Neizhko

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We keep Phrynosoma asio in BION Terrarium Center since 2011 and start to breed them  in 2013. We strongly  believe that this unusual and still rare species should take soon the important place in herpetoculture (expecially for desert lizards enthusiasts) together with Uromastyx, Xenagama, Petrosaurus, Ctenosaura, Crotaphytus, Pogona , etc.

We imported the first breeding group from Mexico in 2011; the second group was imported from Switzerland in 2012. For October 2014, we have 6 adult males, 12 adult females and 12 c.b. babies.

The details of keeping

Terrarium: We keep adult lizards in groups (2:4) in horizontal type terrariums 160x60x50 cm. Substrate: thick layer of fine sand (depth from 3 to 12 cm).   The bottom’s lay should be kept humid.

Babies and young lizards are kept in open plastic boxes  60x40x40 cm. Substrate: paper towels or wipes.

Decoration & equipment: Water bowls, branches and wood for climbing & hiding, artificial plants

Lighting (day length): Zoo Med lamp “Reptisun UV.10”;  14 hours at summer, around 4 hours at wintertime (during hibernation) .  

Heating: Spot lamp 100 watts;

UV: Full spectrum Zoo Med lamp “Reptisun UV.10”;

Temperature: day time - 28-30°C, night time - 15-22°C.

basking place – up to 45°C

IMPORTANT: We try to keep in hot summer time all our Phrynosoma in outdoor facilities.

Humidity: For adults - spray intensively terrarium every  other day before feeding at 3:00 p.m.

For babies – spray box every day 1-2 times (the first time at the morning and the second time before feeding at 3:00 p.m.)

Fresh water is available all  time.

Diet: Crickets, Turkestan roaches, ants (must be in the summer) – every day by 5-7 insects per animal. Do not give hard shell mealworms and zophobas (only freshly molt with white color).  

It is better to feed animals from 3:00 to 4:00 p.m. after lizards are well heated.

We spray intensively terrarium with water before feeding.

Mineral supplements: Each feeding we sprinkle insects with calcium and vitamins Also we using Repashi Superfood (Formic Cal Plus)  2 times per week when feeding  other insects than ants

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Phrynosoma asio reach their sexual maturity at 1,5-2 years .

Oviparous lizards: lays from 8 to 37 eggs in several clutches per season.


Mating observed in June-August. Eggs are laid in August-October.

Female lays eggs in 7 weeks after mating. Usually a clutch consists of 7-15 eggs.

The incubation period is around 90-100 days at the temperature 25°C.

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We keep adult lizards in groups (2:4). Conflicts are not observed . In the hot season (mid-May to the end of August) animals are kept in  outdoors facilities. Night time temperature is not lower than 14°C.

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Breeding statistics:


-  In 2013 we got 14 babies from 1 female (1 clutch of 15 eggs total).

-  In 2014 weobserved mating at the middle of July.


For the moment we got only 1 unfertilized clutch from 1 female (end of September).

Keeping offsprings:

The size of  new born lizards are  about 3 cm, including tail 

We recommend keeping babies in open plastic boxes from hatching till next 60 days. We use plastic boxes 45x30x30 cm. We used paper towels or wipes instead of substrate. After 60 days we put babies in larger boxes 60x40x35 cm. Diet of babies and young lizards should include more ants than diet of adults. Crickets and ants should match  50/50 at the diet. 

Veterinary issues:

Rickets (deformation and softening of the bones) may develop in juveniles and adults in case of wrong care. 

To prevent problem - the exposure of UV should be increased (“hard” UV over than 280nm during 2 minutes every other day until improvement).

Also dose of calcium should be increased (calcium gluconate in liquid should be offered oraly by 2-3 drops from 2 ml syringe every other day until the situation improves.




Breeding of Egernia stokesii at BION Terrarium Center

 by Dmitri Tkachev & Elena Ponomarenko

We keep Egernia stokesii in BION Terrarium Center since 2006 and breed them constantly starting 2009. Breeding stock was obtained in 2006 and 2013. For October 2014, we have 7 adult males and 10 adult females.

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The details of keeping

Terrarium: For adults - 1800х600х500 cm. Babies are kept in groups, and immediately after birth placed into plastic boxes 600х600х500 cm on paper or wipes (instead of substrate).

Decoration: Water bowl, branches and wood for climbing, hiding places made of bamboo tubes, pieces of bark, stones.

Substrate: Clay, loam.

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Illumination (day length): Lamp SALVINIAREPTISTAR 18 Watts; light day in summer is up to 14 hours; in winter is around 9-10 hours.

UV:   is obligatory; exposure is up to 14 hours in summer; around 9-10 hours in winter.

Heating: Spot lamp 100 watts; in summer is around 5 hours per day, in winter is all light day.

Temperature: Daytime - 26-32°C, at night - 25-26°C, local hotspot – up to 45°C.

Humidity: 50-60% for adults. In the breeding period humidity should be increased to 80% by spraying in the morning. Humidity for babies is 60-70%. It is achieved by constant moisture of wipes (instead of substrate).

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Diet: We feed adults every other day. Crickets – 1-2 times per week by 5-7 insects per animal; Turkestan roaches – 1-2 times per week by 5-7 insects per animal; zophobas – 1 time per week by 3 worm per animal, salad – 3-4 times per week. 

We feed babies every day by сrickets, Turkestan roaches and small zophobas by 5-7 insects per animal. Salad should be offered daily.

Ingredients of Salad:

SUMMER: leaves of dandelion, nettles, clover, knotweed, coltsfoot;
WINTER: Chinese cabbage, carrot, arugula, parsley, dill, celery, dried a

Also we use leaves of fruit trees in the spring and summer.

Mineral supplements:   are obligatory; 2 times per week (Calcium with D3).

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It is advisable to carry out in the same terrariums in which animals are kept, the same groups (or at least in pairs).
Duration of hibernation is from November till February and divided into:

  • Preparatory period - two weeks with gradual reduction in temperature to 18°C and decreasing a light day to completely turn off lighting.
  • Hibernation period. The temperature is 18°C. Hiding places are obligatory. Fresh water is available all the time. Do not feed lizards.
  • Completive period - two weeks with gradual increase of temperature to 26-28°C and increasing a light day to 10-12 hours.

Then normal feeding and maintenance follows. Hibernation is a stimulus to the reproduction (June- September).

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Egernia stokesii reach their sexual maturity at 4-5 years old.

Pregnancy duration is about 2 months.

During of all the time working with Egernia stokesii we never saw the mating.

During one season one female can give birth 1-2 times.

The average number of babies born from one female is 4.

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Breeding of Eublepharis angramainyu at BION Terrarium Center

by Dmitri Tkachev & Ivan Neizhko

As the matter of fact IRANIAN LEOPARD GECKO (Eublepharis angramainyu) is the largest and the most attractive representative of Eublepharis genus and amazing species introduced in Herpetoculture both for hobbyists and collectors.

The size of adult male could reach 30 cm. It is robust lizard with high yellow basic color (Ilam province).


This magical species are available in captivity only after 2005!

We keep Eublepharis angramainyu in BION Terrarium Center since 2010 and start to breed them on a regular base in 2012. We obtained the first breeding group (originated from Ilam province, Iran) in December 2010; the second group (originated from Kermanshah province, Iran) was obtained in 2013. For October 2014, we have following groups as our breeding stock:

·        First group (Ilam) 2:4:7


·        Second group (Kermanshah) 2:1:4


·        Third group – hybrid (mix Ilam + Kermanshah) 0:2


 The details of keeping

Terrarium: For adult pair or group (1.2) - not less than 500х450х400cm. Important: the bottom area should be at least 0,2 m². Substrate: clay.

Babies and young lizards are kept separately by 1-2 specimensin a plastic box with bottom heating. We keep separately babies from different clutches. With the growth of animals we move them into larger boxes. Substrate: paper or wipes.

Decoration: Water bowls, bamboo tubes as hiding places, moist chamber (box with damp moss). 

Illumination (day length): Full spectrum lamp; 12 hours.

Heating: Spot lamp 60 watts; 12 hours.

UV: is not required foradults; full spectrum lamp – for babies.

Temperature: daytime - 28-32°C, nighttime - 25-26°C.

Humidity: 50-60%. It is achieved by spraying 2 times per day.

Diet:  We feed adult specimens by crickets – 2-3 times per week 5 insects dusted with calcium per animal; Turkestan roaches – 1 time per week 5 insects per animal; 1 mouse – 1 time per week (for pregnant females or after laying eggs).

We feed babies by сrickets – 5 times per week 5 insects proper size dusted with calcium per animal.

Mineral supplements: The dish with a powder of Calcium with D3 should stay at the terrarium all the time.


Eublepharis angramainyu reach their sexual maturity at 10-14 months old.

Adult animals are kept together in groups of 1:2 and separatedonly for the hibernation period.

Hibernation takes 2,5 months from October till February and arranged for adult animals as follows:

-         7 days - preparatory period, temperature 28-32°Cwithout food.

-         2 months, temperature 17 - 18°C without light, only water bowl and moist chamber.

-         4-7 days - output from hibernation - gradual increase of temperature for 2-3°C every day. 

Then usual keeping conditions are provided.

Pregnancy takes about 18-24 days.

One female can lay 3-4 clutches per season that consist of 1-2 (usually 2) eggs.

There are about 18-24 days between two clutches. 

The incubation temperature is 28°C for obtaining females and 32°C for obtaining males.

The incubation period is 46-61 days.

 The level of humidity should be around 60-80% (a drop of water should appear on the surface of sub strate after pressing it). We use a vermiculate as a substrate.

Statistics of our breeding seasons:

-         In 2012 we got 6 babies from 1 female (3 clutches , 6 eggs total)

-         In 2013 we got 7 babies from 1 female (4 clutches,7 eggs total)

-         In 2014 we got 23 babies from 5 females (18 clutches, 35 eggs total).

Several eggs are still in the incubator.

Iran leopard geckos are still in a good demand and thus we always ask our customers for reservation.

Features of keeping offspring:

We recommend keeping babies in plastic boxes from the hatching and during next 90 days. We use plastic boxes 45x30x30 cm. Paper or wipes instead of substrate. Starting 90 days (three months), we keep each male separately in larger boxes; two females can be kept together (animals from the same clutch).

 Veterinary issues:

 Rickets (deformation and softening ofthe bones) may develop in juveniles and adults in case of wrong care. 

To prevent - the exposure of UV should be increased (“hard” UV over than 280nm during 2 minutes every other day until improvement).

Also dose of calcium should be increased (calcium gluconate in liquid should be offered oraly by 2-3 drops from 2 ml syringe every other day until the situation improves.




1.     Eublepharis angramainyu Anderson & Leviton, 1966 (Western Leopard Gecko, Iranian Fat-Tailed Gecko)

2.     Eublepharis macularius: Boulenger, 1885a: 97 (in part; not Blyth, 1854). -F. Werner, 1917:197; 1936:200. -Smith, 1935:128. -S. Anderson, 1963:435-437, fig. 8.

3.     Eublepharis angramainyu S. Anderson and Leviton, 1966a: 1-5, figs. 1-2 (Type locality: between Masjed Soleyrnan and Batvand, Khuzestan Province, Iran; Holotype: CAS 86384). -S. Anderson, 1968:332. -J. J. Schmidtler and J. F. Schmidtler, 1970:239-241, figs. 1-2. -Tuck, 1971b: 56. -S. Anderson, 1974:31, 43-Schleich, 1977:127, 129. -Darevsky, 1978:207-208, fig. 3. Welch, 1983:6. -Szczerbak and Golubev, 1986:29-30 [1996:29], fig. 7. -Grisrner, 1988:441-452. -Kluge, 1991:8. -Leviton et al, 1992:36-37, col. p1. 4H. -Kluge, 1993: 10.

4.     Eublepharis ensafi Baloutch and Thireau, 1986:281-288, figs. 1-6 (Type locality: Fakke, ca 150 km N Ahvaz, Iran; Holotype: Musée Facultë des Sciences de Tehran 456).